Earth’s ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles drive and respond to environmental change; and environmental changes are occurring at an unprecedented rate. Penn State geographers develop tools and models to understand, detect, predict, and model interactions within and between ecosystems, the atmosphere and the critical zone across scales that range from local to global. We seek to understand social process and networks, built from linked information connecting the environment, infrastructure, and society. Applications include the monitoring and adaptation of physical features such as air and water quality, human relationships and support networks, and built systems such as the electric grid and telecommunications. Our analyses use data from satellite remote sensing networks and national spatial data infrastructures, social media fusion, virtual reality and drone-based imaging—all areas of innovation for our researchers.